I recently read an article on the CBC website (“Hidden cameras and secret trackers reveal where Amazon return end up”) about what Amazon does with some returned products when people return them in new condition. Apparently many of these products end up in landfills. The article notes that this waste caused France, for example, to pass a new French anti-waste law forcing e-retailors like Amazon to “recycle or donate all returned or unused merchandise”.
Destroying new merchandise is a horrible waste, but we shouldn’t put all the blame on Amazon, there is more than enough of that blame that we can assess against ourselves. Americans have long had a love affair with returning items. How many of us have done the following:
- Purchased clothing for a special event and then returned the item the next day for a full refund?
- Purchased multiple colors of an item to determine which color we liked best and then returned the rest?
- Ordered multiple sizes of an item to determine the best fit and then returned the rest?
- Purchased something because it was on sale only to later return it because you really couldn’t use it?
We are more likely to indulge in the above non-efficient behavior when there is no cost to us. Businesses offer free returns to gain a strategic advantage over their competition and to provide exceptional service to their customers. In many cases Amazon and other vendors will not only allow free returns but they will also provide you with a shipping label so you don’t incur any upfront shipping costs to return the item. You re-box the item, attach the return mailing label, and drop if off. Easy-peasy!
Yahoo Finance states that “It’s not uncommon for online retailers to see 30% of all products people ordered online returned, as compared to 8.89% in brick-and-mortar stores. Clothing return rates can be close to 40%”.
Sometimes these returned goods are resold by the vendor as “used” or sold to liquidators who resell the items at a discount. But, in many cases, the returned produces are thrown away. Often it is more cost-effective for a vendor to trash a new product rather than have it returned to their facility as the return cost exceeds the vendor’s profit margin on the product. Has anyone ever received the wrong product and were told by the vendor to keep the product and they would mail the correct product? This happens because in some cases it’s not worth it to the vendor to pay for the cost to have the wrong product shipped back.
When I sell my personal books online I have a free return policy because most book wholesalers won’t accept books unless there is a free return policy. But, I specify that the returned book be trashed so I don’t have to pay the return shipment costs which are higher than the cost to produce my book!
The product waste incurred when good products are trashed has a big economic impact which can be larger than the production cost of that item. The shipping and labor costs of these returns are significant and steals person-hours away from “value-added” work.
We are a return society. Americans enjoy their freedom and that freedom extends to returning items with little concern for the economic impact.
We have seen the enemy and it is us!
Money transfer is one of the core competencies of traditional banks, usually between parties via bank-to-bank transfers. Of course transferring and receiving money is not the only service banks perform but it is at the core of the bank’s reason for being since most other services depend or are connected to the fact that banks can move money from point A to point B.
In the old days before computers or telegraphs banks had to transfer money physically between them. They did create notes (essentially IOUs) which could be exchanged on a short-term basis but eventually a physical transfer of funds was necessary. Since gold was the currency du jour this transfer took the form of horseman loaded up with saddle bags of gold or an armored stage-coach escorted by armed people.
Banks kept track of who owned what money in a ledger. Of course these ledgers were tied to the local bank so you had to physically go to that bank to know what money was where and owned by whom. This type of localized “ledgering” made it a challenge to prevent fraud from occurring.
With the invention of the telegraph money could be “wired”. With these wire transfers money stayed in the bank. What was wired was the details of the ledger changes (what amount of money was taken from A and given to B).
Two of the major ways bank-to-bank money transfers occur today are through the Automated Clearing House (ACH) electronic network and by wire transfer.
Automated Clearing House Transfer
“Automated Clearing House (ACH) is an electronic network for financial transactions in the United States. ACH processes large volumes of credit and debit transactions in batches. ACH credit transfers include direct deposit, payroll and vendor payments. ACH direct debit transfers include consumer payments on insurance premiums, mortgage loans, and other kinds of bills. Debit transfers also include new applications such as the point-of-purchase (POP) check conversion pilot program sponsored by the National Automated Clearing House Association (NACHA). Both the government and the commercial sectors use ACH payments. Businesses increasingly use ACH online to have customers pay, rather than via credit or debit cards”.
ACH transfers are a centralized process as all financial transactions have to go through the ACH. For example, suppose several customers deposit checks into Bank A:
- Customers deposits checks into Bank A
- Bank A enters the deposits in its ledger as pending transactions
- Bank A aggregates the customer transactions into batches
- The “batched” transactions are transmitted electronically at regular predetermined intervals over the ACH network
- The ACH Operator receives batches of ACH entries from Bank A. The ACH transactions are sorted and made available by the ACH Operator to Bank B
- Bank B checks to make sure funds are available to payout the checks in the received ACH transactions and updates it’s ledger
- Bank B sends notification to Bank A that the deposited checks have cleared. Bank A changes the associated transactions from the pending state to complete. This notification can take from 1 to 3 days or more from the time Bank A submits the deposited check transactions over the ACH network. This delay is necessary to ensure the integrity of the transaction (i.e., to make sure the money is not spent multiple times).
Continue reading “Will Banks Go the Way of the Dinosaur with the Emergence of Blockchain?”